What is a Biscuit?


Generally speaking, a biscuit is a type of baked food product made with flour. They can be sweet, savory, or both. They can be made with a variety of ingredients such as sugar, jam, or chocolate. Biscuits may also be made with icing. They are typically flat and hard.


Traditionally, biscuits are made from flour, salt, and butter. Biscuits were originally called buccellum in Roman times. Egyptians called them dhourra cake.

Biscuits are often served with gravy. This combination was ideal for sailors who would go on long voyages on the sea. They would not spoil quickly. They were portable healthy food. It nourished sailors and soldiers.

Biscuits are not sweetened. This makes them difficult to chew. The hard, flat, crispy biscuits became crackers. The saltine biscuit came from Elizabethan England and became associated with a braggart and a cracking whip. The word cookie comes from a Dutch word that means ‘cook’.

Biscuits were eaten by sailors in the Middle Ages. The medieval Arab physician Ibn Butlan recommended eating biscuits filled with nuts and warming figs. They were also eaten at the end of the meal to sweeten breath.


Various ingredients can be added to a biscuit for a more unique flavor. Adding a few extra ingredients like bacon, cheese, or even a cooked vegetable will add a unique twist to the usual biscuit.

A biscuit is a type of pastry containing flour, butter, and milk. It has a somewhat sweet and slightly greasy taste. It can be eaten hot or cold. They are a great accompaniment to lots of different foods.

One of the most common biscuit flavors is chocolate. Biscuits are also used as a bread side, a dessert, or a quick carby snack.

The most common fat in biscuits is butter. Other popular fats include lard, shortening, and sour cream. You can cut the butter into small pieces with a pastry cutter.


Among the ingredients of biscuits is flour, sugar, fat, and baking powder. The ingredients in biscuits are also varied and may include fruit, nuts, and baking agents. They are also a source of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

In addition, biscuits can be flavored with nuts, raisins, chocolate, and fruit fillings. They are rich in fats and carbohydrates and provide quick energy. In addition, biscuits are low in proteins, dietary fibers, and vitamins. They can also be made from whole wheat flour. The ingredients of biscuits are usually refined white flour, flour, sugar, milk, and baking powder.

The ingredients of biscuits can be analyzed and reformulated to improve their characteristics. They can be made with non-GMO flour, natural flavors, and healthy fats. These ingredients can also be added to the dough to improve the taste and texture of the biscuits.


During the baking process, biscuits undergo complex physical and chemical changes. These changes affect the texture, color, density, and even the moisture content of the biscuit.

The process of caramelization is one of the major processes that occur in biscuit baking. This process involves the breakdown of sugars and amino acids at high temperatures. The resulting chemical reaction forms several compounds that are responsible for the browning effect.

Another process that affects biscuits is dextrinization. In this process, starch is broken down by heating and becomes pyrodextrins, which are brown and have a distinctive flavor.

During the baking process, the moisture content of biscuits varies based on the baking chamber temperature and the humidity level in the oven. The amount of moisture released is usually not enough to fully gelatinize the starch in the dough.

Storage of biscuits

Various physical, chemical, and textural changes were observed during the accelerated storage of biscuits. The deterioration phenomena are related to the degradation of the lipids that are the main component of the biscuits.

Lipid oxidation produces secondary products that are detrimental to the biscuit’s shelf-life. This study aims to evaluate the effect of innovative packaging materials on the quality of biscuits stored in different environments.

Biscuits were packed in 26 mm x 60 mm thimbles. They were then measured edge-to-edge. A panel of experienced judges assessed the biscuits based on taste, mouth feel, and surface character. They assigned scores of 0 to 10 for each parameter.

The biscuits were stored at 35 deg C for 105 days. The initial moisture content was 2.16%. This moisture level decreased to 1.84% after five days. The moisture content of biscuits packed in flexible PLA packaging was the highest. This could be due to the increased water vapor permeation through the packaging material.