Peripheral Artery Disease
Peripheral artery disease can cause a variety of symptoms. These symptoms range from mild cramping during exercise to severe muscle pain at rest. Typically, the pain will be felt in the leg, particularly the calf. Severe leg pain can make walking difficult and may interfere with sleeping. Some people have found temporary relief by draping their legs over the edge of their bed or walking around the room.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects the arteries of the legs, arms, and sometimes other parts of the body. It is caused when cholesterol from the blood sticks to the damaged walls of these arteries. The condition can lead to severe symptoms such as numbness or leg pain, and it can even lead to amputation. It is more common among African Americans and older adults.
People with peripheral artery disease may experience mild to severe symptoms. For example, some people experience cramping,, numbness or claudication. These symptoms may occur during rest or while exercising. The most common symptom is a pain in the leg. Pain can make walking difficult and may prevent you from sleeping at night. In severe cases, a person may experience pain that prevents them from standing up straight.
If you are experiencing these symptoms, you must visit a doctor to diagnose your condition. Peripheral artery disease can result from various factors, including inflammation in the blood vessels and abnormal ligament anatomy. However, if you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should not ignore them as a normal part of aging.
Various treatments are available to treat peripheral artery disease. In some cases, stents can be used, thin metal support coils inserted into the narrowed artery. These devices keep the blood vessel open by delivering medications to the artery walls and surrounding tissue. Surgery can also be performed to remove the blockage. During the procedure, the patient stays in the hospital for one to two days and then recovers at home.
Another option for treating peripheral artery disease is angioplasty, which opens up blocked arteries. Angioplasty involves the insertion of a catheter with a balloon attached to it. The balloon pushes the plaque against the artery walls, increasing blood flow. In some cases, angioplasty is performed along with the placement of a stent, which props up the narrowed artery and reduces the chance of future blockage. Stents are usually coated with a drug to help the artery heal. Other treatments include atherectomy, which removes plaque from a clogged artery to open it and improve blood flow.
Treatment for peripheral artery disease depends on the condition’s cause and the symptoms. Symptoms of peripheral artery disease can include leg cramping or pain during exercise. These symptoms are known as claudication and decrease the quality of life. However, with suitable treatment options, a person can gradually increase the distance they can walk before experiencing pain. In some cases, the pain can disappear completely.
Risk factors for peripheral artery disease include age, smoking, and diabetes. These risk factors were combined into 13 broad categories, and the findings suggest that these risk factors are associated with an increased risk for peripheral artery disease. However, this study does not address whether any particular risk factor can prevent the onset of this disease.
An expanding body of epidemiological studies estimates the prevalence of peripheral artery disease. More studies would increase our understanding of the disease’s causes and help us develop more effective preventive strategies. The global prevalence of peripheral artery disease has been estimated at 202 million people. Seventy-five percent of those affected live in low-income countries.
In 2015, there were 236*62 million people worldwide with peripheral artery disease, a rise of 17*10% compared to 2010. The most significant increase in cases was observed in LMICs, while fewer cases were observed in HICs. In total, 15 countries accounted for two-thirds of the world’s cases of peripheral artery disease.
Diagnosis of peripheral artery disease (PAD) involves careful examination of the patient’s condition, including medical history and physical exam. During the examination, the healthcare provider will listen for bruit or an abnormal whooshing sound and look for sores, swelling, and pale skin. Pain in the leg is a common symptom of PAD, but pain may also be caused by other medical conditions, such as arthritis or a vein problem. Therefore, a physical exam should rule out other possible conditions.
Various tests are used to diagnose peripheral artery disease, including ultrasound imaging. Ultrasound imaging provides an anatomic view of the arteries and information about the velocity and characteristics of blood flow. A combination of Doppler and traditional ultrasound allows doctors to see areas of arterial blockage. This information helps doctors decide whether a patient needs surgical intervention. Patients with advanced disease may also undergo an invasive procedure, such as angiography, which requires catheter insertion and a dye.
Surgical treatment options for peripheral artery disease depend on a patient’s age, the number of narrowed arteries, and other factors. Diagnosis of peripheral artery disease is essential because PAD can lead to a heart attack or stroke.